What Might Be The Most Controversial Agreement At Yalta
Date Posted: April 15, 2021 by admin
The final agreement stipulated that “the provisional government currently working in Poland should therefore be reorganized on a broader democratic basis, including Polish and Polish democratic leaders abroad.”  Yalta`s language recognized the supremacy of the pro-Soviet Lublin government in a provisional government, albeit a reorganized one.  The most annoying subject was the fate of the Eastern European countries that Germany had conquered during the war. The Soviet army occupied most of the territory, making it difficult for Churchill and Roosevelt to negotiate with Stalin on this point. It was agreed that the transitional governments of these countries would give way as soon as possible to democratically elected regimes. With regard to Poland, Churchill and Roosevelt left the Polish government in exile based in London and agreed that the members of this group should cooperate with the Soviet-dominated group, based in Lublin, Poland. The three heads of state and government tried to establish an agenda for the leadership of post-war Europe and to maintain peace between post-war countries. On the Eastern Front, the front line remained in the Soviet Union at the end of December 1943, but in August 1944, Soviet troops were in Poland and Romania as part of their journey west. At the time of the conference, Field Marshal Georgui Zhukov`s troops were 40 miles from Berlin. Stalin lowered himself so much at the conference that he could dictate conditions. According to James F. Byrne, a member of the U.S. delegation and future secretary of state, “it was not a question of what we would leave to the Russians, but what we could do to the Russians.” In addition, Roosevelt hoped that Stalin would commit to participating in the United Nations.
Churchill defended his action in Yalta in a three-day parliamentary debate that began on 27 February and ended with a vote of confidence. During the debate, many MPs criticized Churchill and expressed deep reservations about Yalta and his support for Poland, 25 of whom drafted an amendment to protest the agreement.  In addition, the Big Three agreed to send all the first governments back to the invaded countries (except Romania and Bulgaria, where the Soviets had already liquidated most governments;… And Poland, whose government in exile was also excluded from Stalin) and that all civilians would be repatriated. On March 1, Roosevelt assured Congress: “I come from Crimea with the firm conviction that we have begun on the road to a world of peace.”  However, the Western powers soon realized that Stalin would not keep his promise of free elections for Poland. After receiving considerable criticism in London after Yalta of the atrocities committed by Soviet troops in Poland, Churchill wrote a desperate letter to Roosevelt in which he referred to the large-scale deportations and liquidations of opposition Poles by the Soviets.  On March 11, Roosevelt replied to Churchill and wrote, “I am sure we must stand firm on a correct interpretation of Crimea`s decision. They rightly believe that neither the government nor the people of this country will support participation in fraud or mere deception by the Lublin government, and the solution must be as we imagined it in Yalta.
 The most important task was the imminent division of the Nazi Third Reich soon to be conquered into four zones of occupation, each for Great Britain, America, France and the Soviet Union. When the Cold War became a reality in the years following Yalta`s conference, many critics of Roosevelt`s foreign policy accused him of having “exhausted” himself at the meeting and of naively letting Stalin naively follow his path. It seems doubtful, however, that Roosevelt had much choice.